Psychologists and educational professionals use many different different assessment tools to conduct educational evaluations. Our Leadership Team helps families to review educational testing and neuropsychological evaluations in order to determine next steps and interventions in collaboration with related service professionals. In our review of student documentation, we’ve found that the following assessments are some of the most commonly selected by educational professionals and psychologists.
Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS)
The ASRS was designed to effectively identify symptoms, behaviors, and associated features of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in children and adolescents aged 2 to 18. The ASRS provides the first nationally standardized, norm-referenced ASD Rating Scale. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration
The Beery-Buktenica visual-motor integration test is a neuropsychological test that analyzes visual construction skills. It identifies problems with visual perception, motor coordination, and visual-motor integration such as hand-eye coordination. The Beery-Buktenica Test, also known as Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration or VMI, is designed to identify deficits in visual perception, fine motor skills , and hand-eye coordination. It may be used to diagnose cognitive development disorders in young children through an analysis of visual construction skills. It can be administered to individuals from age two through young adulthood and can also be used to test adults of all ages, particularly those who have been disabled by stroke , injury, or Alzheimer’s disease. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)
A comprehensive set of rating scales and forms including the Teacher Rating Scales (TRS), Parent Rating Scales (PRS), Self-Report of Personality (SRP), Student Observation System (SOS), and Structured Developmental History (SDH). Together, they help you understand the behaviors and emotions of children and adolescents. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF)
Determines language strengths and weaknesses. Provides Receptive Language and Expressive Language scores, and additional composite scores-Language Structure, Language Content, Language Content and Memory, and Working Memory. For ages 5-21. The CELF–5 offers a more robust assessment of pragmatics using observations and interactive activities. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Connors’ Rating Scale
The Conners’ Rating Scales–Revised (CRS–R™), the Conners 3 has a greater focus on ADHD and associated features. The Conners 3 now also addresses comorbid disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Each parent, teacher and self-report form is available in a full-length and a short version. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale
The Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) is a neuropsychological test is used to measure a variety of verbal and nonverbal executive functions for both children and adults (ages 8 – 89 years). This assessment was developed over the span of a decade by Dean Delis, Edith Kaplan, and Joel Kramer, and it was published in 2001. The D-KEFS comprises nine tests that were designed to stand alone. Therefore, there are no aggregate measures or composite scores for an examinee’s performance. A vast majority of these tests are modified, pre-existing measures (e.g., the Trail Making Test), however, some of these measures are new indices of executive functions (e.g., Word Context Test). The D-KEFS can be distinguished from most other executive-function tests by its embrace of the “cognitive process approach” in which multiple measures are generated to isolate the mechanism of a patient’s poor score on a particular task. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT)
The Gray Oral Reading Tests – 5 is a comprehensive measure of oral reading skills. Specifically, the test is designed to (a) to help identify those students who are significantly behind their peers in oral reading and determine the degree of the problem, (b) to discover oral reading strengths and weaknesses within individual student, (c) to monitor students’ progress in special intervention programs and (d) to be used in research studying reading in school-aged students. The examiner can analyze to pinpoint strengths and use the miscue analysis procedure to select intervention strategies using the GORT-5. The GORT-5 is considered a reliable and valid tool for this purpose. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
*Designed for learners 6.0 years to 23 years, 11 months.
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC) is a clinical instrument (psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development. Its construction incorporates several recent developments in both psychological theory and statistical methodology. The test was developed by Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman in 1983 and revised in 2004. The test has been translated and adopted for many countries. The KABC also gives special attention to certain emerging testing needs, such as use with handicapped groups, application to problems of learning disabilities, and appropriateness for cultural and linguistic minorities. The authors rightly caution, however, that success in meeting these special needs must be judged through practical use over time. They also point out that the KABC should not be regarded as “the complete test battery”; like any other test, it should be supplemented and corroborated by other instruments to meet individual needs, such as theStanford-Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, McCarthy scales, or neuropsychological tests. the Japanese version of the K-ABC by the Japanese psychologist including Tatsuya Matsubara, Kazuhiro Fujita, Hisao Maekawa, and Toshinori Ishikuma. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement
The KTEA provides an individually administered measure of educational achievement for those aged 4 years 6 months – 25 years (comprehensive form) and 4 years 6 months – 90+ (brief form). The test can be used to identify an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in three key domains: maths, written language and spoken language. It can also be used as part of a comprehensive psychological, psychoeducational or neuropsychological test battery which can enhance understanding of the individuals total functioning. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
The Comprehensive Form consists of 14 subtests grouped into 4 domain composites, 4 reading-related composites, an overall Comprehensive Achievement Composite in addition to separate subtest scores.
The Brief Form is a curriculum-based instrument which provides norm-referenced assessment in the same three core achievement domains as the comprehensive form. There is no content overlap with the Comprehensive Form, it can be used for retesting and includes the following subtests:
- Reading—word recognition and reading comprehension
- Maths—computation and application problems
- Written Expression—written language and spelling
- The Brief Form provides a battery composite as well as subtest scores in reading, maths and spelling
Nelson-Denny Reading Test
The Nelson–Denny Reading Test was created in 1929 by M.S. Nelson and E.C. Denny, both of whom were on the faculty of Iowa State Teacher’s College. The purpose of the test is to measure reading ability among high school and college students. It is not appropriate for the clinical evaluation of reading disorders, however it may be used to identify students in need of remedial reading instruction. The Nelson–Denny includes two subtests (Vocabulary and Comprehension) both with multiple choice questions, and yields four scores. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial (RCFT)
Meaures visospatial ability and visuospatial memory in ages 6-89 years. RCFT captures five domains of neuropsychological functioning: visuospatial recall memory, visuospatial recognition memory, response bias, processing speed, and visuospatial constructional ability. The Recognition trial measures recognition memory for the elements of the Rey complex figure and assesses the respondent’s ability to use cues to retrieve information. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROFT)
The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) is a neuropsychological assessment in which examinees are asked to reproduce a complicated line drawing, first by copying it freehand (recognition), and then drawing from memory (recall). Many different cognitive abilities are needed for a correct performance, and the test therefore permits the evaluation of different functions, such as visuospatial abilities, memory, attention, planning, and working memory (executive functions). First proposed by Swiss psychologist André Rey in 1941 and further standardized by Paul-Alexandre Osterrieth in 1944, it is frequently used to further explain any secondary effect of brain injury in neurological patients, to test for the presence of dementia, or to study the degree of cognitive development in children. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults (SATA)
The SATA measures the scholastic competence of persons from the ages of 16 through 70. The SATA’s aptitude and achievement components can provide an aptitude-achievement discrepancy analysis needed for LD placement. The SATA was normed on 1,005 persons residing in 17 states, and the sample is representative of the nation as a whole with regard to gender, race, ethnicity, urban/rural residence, and geographic region. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI)
The TONI-4, featuring new norms to help ensure proper representation of demographic changes in the U.S. population, offers you an assessment of intelligence, aptitude, abstract reasoning, and problem solving. This language-free test is ideal for evaluating those with questionable or limited language ability.
The administration and response format are pragmatic with simple oral instructions, requiring test-takers to answer with simple but meaningful gestures such as pointing, nodding, or blinking. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Wide Range Achievement Test
The Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4) is an achievement test which measures an individual’s ability to read words, comprehend sentences, spell, and compute solutions to math problems. The test currently is in its fourth revision. The test was developed in 1941 by psychologists Sidney W. Bijou and Joseph Jastak. The test is appropriate for individuals ages 5–94 years. The WRAT4 provides two equivalent forms (Blue and Green), which enables retesting within short periods of time without potential practice effects that occur from repeating the same items. The alternate forms also may be administered together in a single examination. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Language (WRAMAL)
The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2) is a standardized test that measures an individual’s memory functioning. It evaluates both immediate and delayed memory ability along with the acquisition of new learning. The WRAML2 is normed for individuals ages 5–90 years. The WRAML2 is composed of two verbal, two visual, and two attention-concentration subtests, yielding a Verbal Memory Index, a Visual Memory Index, and an Attention-Concentration Index. Together, these subtests yield the General Memory Index. The Working Memory Index consists of the Symbolic Working Memory and Verbal Working Memory subtests. In addition, there are four recognition subtests. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents. It is currently in its fourth edition (WAIS-IV). The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler, as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale that had been released in 1939. The fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) was released in 2008 by Pearson. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. The Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is the most current version. The WISC-V takes 48–65 minutes to administer and generates a Full Scale IQ (formerly known as an intelligence quotient or IQ score) which represents a child’s general intellectual ability. It also provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child’s abilities in more discrete cognitive domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests. Five complementary subtests yield three complementary composite scores to measure related cognitive abilities relevant to assessment and identification of learning problems. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities
The Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities include both the Standard Battery and the Extended Battery. The Standard Battery consists of tests 1 through 10 while the Extended Battery includes tests 11 through 20. There is also a Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Supplement to the Tests of Cognitive Abilities with an additional 11 cognitive tests. All of which combined allows for a considerably detailed analysis of cognitive abilities. The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory factors that this test examines are based on 9 broad stratum abilities which are: Comprehension-Knowledge, Long-Term Retrieval, Visual-Spatial Thinking, Auditory Processing, Fluid Reasoning, Processing Speed, Short-Term Memory, Quantitative Knowledge and Reading-Writing. A General Intellectual Ability (GIA) or Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA) may be obtained. The BIA score is derived from three cognitive tests which include Verbal Comprehension, Concept Formation, and Visual Matching. These three cognitive tests measure three abilities; Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc), Fluid Reasoning (Gf), and Processing Speed (Gs), which best represents an individual’s verbal ability, thinking ability, and efficiency in performing cognitive tasks. The BIA takes about 10 to 15 minutes to administer and is especially useful for screenings, re-evaluations that don’t require a comprehensive intellectual assessment, or research that needs a short but reliable measure of intelligence. On the other hand, the GIA obtained from the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities provide a more comprehensive assessment of general ability (g) and the score is based on a weighted combination of tests that best represents a common ability underlying all intellectual performance. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.
Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement
The WJ III NU Tests of Achievement has two parallel forms (A and B) that are divided into two batteries—Standard and Extended. The Standard Battery includes tests 1 through 12 that provide a broad set of scores. The 10 tests in the Extended Battery provide more in-depth diagnostic information on specific academic strengths and weaknesses. Examiners can administer the Standard Battery either alone or with the Extended Battery. The WJ III NU Tests of Achievement has two parallel forms (A and B) that are divided into two batteries—Standard and Extended. The Standard Battery includes tests 1 through 12 that provide a broad set of scores. The 10 tests in the Extended Battery provide more in-depth diagnostic information on specific academic strengths and weaknesses. Examiners can administer the Standard Battery either alone or with the Extended Battery.
Practitioners use the WJ III NU Tests of Achievement to help assess students for learning disabilities and to determine if they need special services. IDEA 2004 requires the use of a variety of assessment tools and strategies to gather relevant, functional, developmental, and academic information about the student. The WJ III NU Tests of Achievement include tests and clusters that directly parallel those outlined by IDEA and provide sound procedures for determining learning variances between abilities and achievement. This assessment tool may be used as part of the process for conducting educational evaluations.By Laurie Gross, Educational Consultant and Executive Director
My Learning Springboard, Inc.